article about smoking in malaysia

Article  Global Adult Tobacco Survey: Thailand Country. 2000, 78: 1296-1305. 2008, 45: 72-89. Beyond these self-reported statistics however, the broader impacts of the pictorial warning on smoking prevalence is not known and requires further investigation. CYY, TCH, LKK and G were involved in interpretation and implications of the analysis. Smoking-related diseases such as cancer and cardiovascular disease are the main cause of premature death globally [1]. 2001, 11: 206-210. PubMed Google Scholar. CTPR’04 have been amended numerous times to progressively increase the smoke free areas. A total of 34,305 respondents aged 18 years and older were interviewed using a structured questionnaire. Data show that only 36% of Malaysian smokers feel that smoking is a burden on their finances [11] compared to about 49% in Mauritus [59], and 22% of survey respondents [11] think that higher cigarette prices may motivate them to quit smoking. 2006, New Delhi: Northern Book Centre, 113-121. The finding that older Malaysian males smoke less than middle-aged and younger males is also a cause for concern for the two younger cohorts, as population trends show that there will likely be a rise in their numbers in the future, and therefore a greater burden on the country from smoking unless these trends are reversed. Respondents were selected using a multistage cluster sampling design and surveyed between January 2005 and March 2005. (Accessed on 15 August 2011), Disease Control Division, Ministry of health Malaysia: Phase 2 (Group 2 Questions) of the Reporting Instrument under the WHO Framework Convention on Tobacco Control. Cite this article. Privacy It is also possible that the healthier non smokers are more likely to get and stay married than those who are divorced as posited by the marriage selection theory. Saeed AA, Khoja TA, Khan SB: Smoking behaviour and attitudes among adult Saudi nationals in Riyadh City. Five million smokers in Malaysia, survey shows By Hashini Kavishtri Kannan - June 3, 2016 @ 4:36am (FILE) An estimated five million Malaysians, or 22.8 per cent of the population, are smokers, according to the National Health and Morbidity Survey (NHMS). Park EJ, Koh HK, Kwon JW, Suh MK, Kim H, Cho SI: Secular trends in adult male smoking from 1992 to 2006 in south Korea: Age-specific changes with evolving tobacco-control policies. During the first six (6) months of 2019, enforcement involves verbal or written warnings. 10.1016/j.socscimed.2005.08.009. 1997, Kuala Lumpur: Institute of Publish Health, Institute of Public Health, Ministry of Health Malaysia: Smoking. The observed decrease, though statistically significant, is very modest compared to other countries that have reduced smoking prevalence by 9% to 25% over 10–20 years after implementing anti-tobacco measures [21, 22]. Addict Behav. 2010, http://www.who.int/tobacco/surveillance/survey/gats/en_gats_china_report.pdf. As developing countries comprise 73% of the world’s smoker population, these countries will be more adversely affected by the health, economic and social impacts of smoking-related diseases [3–5]. Education attainment was categorized into four levels: no formal education, primary education (1–6 years), secondary education (7–12 years), and tertiary education (more than 12 years and enrolled in university). We would like to thank the Director-General of Health Malaysia for his permission to publish this paper. The difference in the prevalence across countries might be due to disparities in the socio-economics 24, culture 25, tobacco legislation 26 and taxation between countries 24. However, it is higher than rates from the Global Adult Tobacco Survey (GATS) in 2011 which reported that 43.6% of Malaysian male aged 15 years and above were current smokers [20]. A study on the burden of disease in 2003 estimated that one-fifth of disability adjusted life years (DALYs) and one-third of years of life lost (YLL) for Malaysians were due to smoking-related diseases [7]. In Malaysia, smoking-related diseases have been the primary cause of mortality for the past three decades [6]. �^"^��{ "Hp��@�$8y�����$����L� #Չ��[� ��5 Similar proportions have been observed in the previous NHMS surveys [16]. 2006, 42: 415-422. (Accessed on 15 August 2012), Norsiah Ali, Smoking Cessation: Bringing aspiration into reality. Moreover, the interview technique employed was standardized and made use of a personalized approach to ensure a high response rate (96.7%) and greater willingness to report on socio-economic status and education level, both key factors for examining the relationship between social class and smoking in the adult male population in Malaysia. (Accessed on 10 January 2013), Malaysia Spends RM 20 billion to treat tobacco related diseases every year. in 2010 [39]. A lower smoking prevalence was found among men aged 50 years and above in this study, which is in accordance with estimates from Korea [43] (50.0% among 50–55 years old compare to 62.0% among age group of 30–34 years old) and Albania [44] (26.5% among respondents age 55–64, 40.9% among 45–54 years old compared to 58.7% among those age 25–34 years old). Br Med J. Malaysia smoking rate for 2015 was 21.80%, a 0.2% decline from 2014. Interestingly, a study from Saudi Arabia showed that smoking prevalence was significantly higher among literate than illiterate Saudis [50]. h�b```� ����cb���>�7�����pl����h�����m%SR@j����r���r���^�h;�CI�� ��c>%L�@�m��\�v��8:8�dCCG�� �400J 9@6�H��i3�FI�G@Z �E@N`�b�e��i��Xo�Ŏ6_��g�ީ���_f��à�� x�#Y��`܆�[���T "�p � ��H Mean age of smoking initiation was 18.3 years, and mean number of cigarettes smoked daily was 11.3. Divorced men were found to smoke more than single, married or widowed men. 2008, 66: 609-619. 2000, 78: 1306-1315. The pre-publication history for this paper can be accessed here:http://www.biomedcentral.com/1471-2458/13/8/prepub. N Engl J Med. The higher proportion of ex-smokers in older age groups was among the plausible explanations to the present finding. Furthermore, tobacco-growing contributes substantially to the economy of many rural communities in Malaysia and thereby makes smoking a more accepted behaviour in this setting. (Accessed on 6 February 2012), Global Adult Tobacco Survey Collaborative Group. As a result, the country seeks to cut the current smoking prevalence into half by year 2020 [9]. Part of 10.1136/bmj.309.6959.937. Tumori. In our analysis, ex-smokers, ever smokers and never smokers were combined and constituted the non-smokers category. The authors declared that they have no competing interest. [UPDATE 31/12/18] And that’s not all. Google ScholarÂ. 2005, 40: 756-764. This heralds a worrying trend in Malaysia since at present more than a quarter of its population is aged 15 and below [35]. 2008, 122: 1061-1067. Increasing the tax on tobacco products is an avenue for the Malaysian government to effectively decrease the affordability of cigarettes and potentially curb smoking-related diseases in Malaysia. https://doi.org/10.1186/1471-2458-13-8, DOI: https://doi.org/10.1186/1471-2458-13-8. This pattern is similar to other countries. NHMS III was a nationwide, cross-sectional, population-based survey. This finding is consistent with what has been reported from previous studies in Europe and Asia [39, 54–56] where it has been postulated that lower-level occupational groups face more physical and psychosocial stressors compared to the managerial and professional classes and therefore, are more likely to engage in high risk health behaviors such as smoking. (Accessed on 5 February 2011), –2010, Global Adult Tobacco Survey: China Country report. PubMed  Public health policies and action need to focus on high risk sub-populations identified through this survey, principally younger, rural, Malay males from a lower income group, and with less formal education. This study was done to determine the prevalence of smoking and factors influencing cigarette smoking among secondary school students in Negeri Sembilan, Malaysia. Malaysia smoking rate for 2016 was 21.50%, a 0.3% decline from 2015. In accordance with results linking occupation and current smoking status, results from this study showed that Malaysians with low socioeconomic status had greater smoking rates than those with high socioeconomic status. Data was collected using a structured questionnaire administered by trained public health personnel. 2004, 13 (2): 63-70. 1996, 5: 215-219. et al. Ferrante M, Fiore M, Leon L, Constantidines G, Castaing M, Fallico R, Sciacca S, Modonutti GB: Age of smoking initiation, tobacco habits and risk perception among primary, middle and high school students in southern Italy. Public Health. [48] who reported smoking was not related to marital status among adult persons residing in urban areas of China. Among the Malaysians, 71% were Malays. Yang GH, Fan LX, Tan J, Qi GM, Zhang YF, Sarnet JM, Taylor CE, Becker K, Xu J: Smoking in China- Finding of the 1996 National Prevalence Survey. Idris BI, Giskes K, Borrell C, Benach J, Costa G, Federico B, et al: Higher smoking prevalence in urban compared to non urban areas: time trend on six European countries. Among males aged 18 years and older, almost half were current smokers (49.2%). Google ScholarÂ. However, local and foreign tobacco industries circumvent such control efforts through trademark diversification. 2007, 13: 702-712. Tob Control. In addition, smoking status is based on self-reporting and is not validated by objective measurements like biochemical markers of smoking. These findings may be explained by the ‘marriage protection’ and ‘marriage selection’ theories [49], which posit that emotional distress due to divorce cause divorcees to turn to smoking for relief. The regulation will be fully enforced effective 1 … We analysed data from the NHMS III. 10.1093/aje/153.8.807. This sense of vulnerability, in addition to having a greater likelihood of experiencing adverse health events from smoking, tend to make older males more receptive to public health messages and medical advice, and therefore more likely to quit smoking [45]. Prev Med. 2001, 33: 453-461. * * Department of Psychology, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, 43600 Bangi, … Poor Smokers. Italian J Public Health. The most commonly consumed tobacco product among Malaysian male smokers was the cigarette (90%) and hand-rolled tobacco (40%). Treatment of Tobacco smoking and dependence 2002. All authors contributed to developing the manuscript, and read and approved the final version. However, in Malaysia retailers are still allowed to display tobacco products, and 32% of Malaysian respondents noticed signs and picture of items with cigarette logos at outlets where tobacco products are sold. Smoking in all restaurants, coffeeshops and hawker centres - even open-air eateries - nationwide is banned in Malaysia starting from Jan 1, 2019. 10.1136/tc.5.3.215. Tobacco Counters Health Vol 4. statement and 0 Tob Control. These measures, as well as changes in the country’s socioeconomic landscape are likely to have changed the smoking pattern of Malaysians over the past decade. Data on monthly household income was obtained using an open-ended question asking for the exact income which was later categorized into three categories: (a) less than RM 2000, (b) RM 2000–2999, and (c) RM 3000 and above. Gilmore ABC, McKee M, Telishevska M, Rose R: Epidemiology of smoking in Ukraine. Elementary workers and agricultural workers had a higher tendency to smoke than those in management and other professional occupations. PubMed  Cigarettes were also the most consumed tobacco product in the Philippines (97.8%) [27] However, cigarettes were less popular in Thailand (64.9%) and India (43.1%) where hand-rolled tobaccos were also commonly used [23, 26]. Double manual data entry method was employed for quality control. Soc Sci Med. Yes, it’s a long list of places - they come under … 2010, 7 (3): 262-267. Data were weighted in the analysis to account for the complex study design and response rate. Lim, H.K., Ghazali, S.M., Kee, C.C. Report http://www.searo.who.int/LinkFiles/Regional_Tobacco_Surveillance_System_GATS_Thailand_2009.pdf. Peto R: Smoking and death: the past 40 years and the next 40. Three National Health and Morbidity Surveys (NHMSs) had been conducted in Malaysia in 10-year intervals from 1986–2006. A majority of the smokers were between 21–40 years of age. The rates are age-standardized. Peto R, Boreham J, Lopez AD, Thun M, Health C: Mortality from tobacco in developed countries: indirect estimation from national vital statistics. Eur J Public Health. While it is unclear if this can be attributed to a switch to vaping, the same report shows five per cent of Malaysians use vaping products. In contrast, prevalence of smoking was lower among high-income earners and professionals in the service or production sectors [16]. Li W, Hsia J, Yang GH: Prevalence of smoking in China in 2010. 10.1016/j.addbeh.2007.10.010. Noncommunicable Disease Section, Disease Control Division: Ministry of health Malaysia, myNCDS-1 Malaysia NCD Surveillance-1 2005/2006. Descriptive statistics were used to estimate smoking prevalence and multivariable logistic regression to determine the influence of each variable on smoking status while simultaneously controlling for potential confounding effects by other variables. However, the observed association between urban–rural and smoking status was maintained after adjusting for income and education, thereby excluding them as the possible explanation for the difference. National Health and Morbidity Survey Volume 17. Am J Epidemiol. AT first glance, and in the name of “promoting good health and protecting non-smokers from secondary smoke”, the ban on smoking is a logical and healthy move. A version of this article appeared in the print edition of The Straits Times on October 12, 2018, with the headline 'Malaysia to ban smoking at all eateries from Jan 1'. Our study showed that the prevalence of smoking in Malaysia has dropped by only 2.8% between 1996 and 2006. In the present study, the mean age of smoking onset (18.3 year old) was lower than reported by the NHMS II in 1996 (19.5 year old) (p <0.01) [16]. 2010, 94: 101-110. 2011, http://www.moh.gov.my/images/gallery/Report/GATS_Malaysia.pdf. The overall response rate was 96.7%. In 2004, the Ministry of Health launched a five-year national anti-smoking campaign with the slogan ‘Tak Nak’ (Say No) that reached more than 92% of the population. (Accessed on 29 Dec 2011). Bull World Health Organ. The 2,426 followed-up smokers (Malaysia, n = 868 and Thailand, n = 1,558) were predominantly male (more than 90% in both countries, reflecting the large gender gap in smoking rates). smoking and smoking among girls and young women Malaysia should prioritise implementation of tobacco control measures in line with recommendations of the WHO Framework Convention on Tobacco Control (FCTC). For example, advertising a tobacco brand on a non-tobacco product or selling non-tobacco products carrying tobacco brand names [12]. Data collection proceeded for four months from April to the end of July, 2006. Respondents with monthly household income less than RM 2000 (1.27, 95% CI 1.13–1.43) were more likely to smoke than those with income of RM 3000 and above. U.S. Department of Health and Human Services: Preventing tobacco use among young people: A report of the Surgeon General. Since the introduction of the Control of Tobacco Products Regulation in 1993, the prevalence of exposure to secondhand smoke in gazetted areas has reportedly declined while prohibition of smoking in Malaysian homes has increased from 7% in 2005 to 40.3% in 2009, with nearly half of all smokers designating their homes as non-smoking areas. Yu Z, Nissinen A, Wartiainen E, Song G, Guo Z, Zheng G, Tuomilehto J, Tian H: Associations between socioeconomic status and cardiovascular risk factors in an urban population in China. Respondents aged 21–30 year old were more likely to smoke compared to those aged 61 years and above (3.31; 95% CI 2.82–3.89). 1999, 8: 196-201. This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/2.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. 10.1016/j.healthplace.2006.11.001. We then analysed the smoking data on 15,639 male respondents. The sample selection method has been described in more detail in the NHMS III official report [17]. 10.1136/tc.2007.022319. READ: Malaysia mulls ban on smoking at open-air restaurants from December Noor Hisham also reminded owners and operators of food premises to display no-smoking signs clearly, and to remove ashtrays. The prevalence of smoking among Malaysian males remained high in spite of several population interventions over the past decade. Living quarters (LQs) represent secondary sampling units. http://jknj.moh.gov.my/jsm/day2/Speciality%20Symposia/SS_13_Smoking%20Cessation%20Bringing%20Aspiration%20into%20Reality.pdf. It is likely that individuals with low education, low level occupation, and low income have less access to adequate health care information and face financial difficulties that increase their stress levels, making them more susceptible to partake in unhealthy lifestyle or health risks such as smoking. Only 5.6% of smokers smoked more than 20 cigarettes per day with 55.7% of male smokers smoking less than 11 cigarettes per day (Table 2). Possible explanations for this include having more time to encounter smoking-related health problems, increased health consciousness with age, more time to be exposed to anti-smoking efforts, and a sense of vulnerability that is less pronounced in the younger age groups. 10.1056/NEJMc1102459. To ensure a high response rate, unoccupied households were revisited up to three times. The current global estimate of 1.3 billion smokers is expected to increase to 1.6 billion by 2025, and the number of deaths due to smoking-related diseases is expected to reach 8.3 million by 2030, up from 4.8 million in 2006 [2]. The present study found that 60% of Malaysian male smokers started smoking by the age of 18, which is higher than those reported in China (52.7%) [26], but lower than in the USA (80%) [33] and Canada (82.6%) [34]. Malaysia has become the latest ASEAN member state to establish more smoke-free zones; rolling out a divisive smoking ban on 1 January which prohibits smoking in all restaurants, open-air eateries, coffee shops and hawker centres. Mean age of smoking initiation was 18.3 years, and mean number of cigarettes smoked daily was 11.3. Moreover, the country has spent as much as 2.92 billion Malaysian ringgit treating chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, ischemic heart disease and lung cancer [8]. 10.1016/j.puhe.2009.09.007. Respondents without formal education were more likely to smoke than those with tertiary education (adjusted odds ratio (aOR) 2.09; 95% CI 1.67–2.60); and those who worked in skilled agriculture and fisheries sector were 2.00 (95% CI 1.66– 2.42) times more likely to smoke than senior officers. 2008, National Poison Centre, University Sains Malaysia, http://www.dfid.gov.uk/r4d/PDF/Outputs/RITC/Malaysia_retailmarketing-Final_technical_report.pdf. The higher proportion of smoking among school going adolescents in Malaysia might due to the measure/s implemented to address the problem of smoking among adolescent in Malaysia are not as comprehensive and throughout as compared to those countries, On the other hand, the smoking ratio of 10:1 among male and female Malaysian adolescents was comparable with those reported in … Nevertheless, the smoking prevalence in Malaysia was still high when compared to developed countries such as Singapore (16%) 22 and Australia (12.8%) 23. The prevalence of smoking among adult males in Malaysia was 46.5% (95% CI: 45.5–47.4%), which was 3% lower than a decade ago. 7 The smoking rate for adult males is 43% 7 and for adult females is 1.4%. The strengths of this study include its large sample size and representativeness of the Malaysian population. , Kunst AE, Mackenbach JP: Inequalities in the smoking rate for 2016 was 21.50 % CI... 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